It has one to two generations per year on kiwifruit in Shaanxi province and two generations per year in eastern China areas such as in Anhui and Jiangxi provinces . YSSB is multivoltine in southern China, with three generations per year in Yunnan province . Zhang Y.Q., Mu X.H., Ji S.L., Li J., Bian X.R. Biology and control of the yellow spotted sting bug and brown what college basketball team’s stars were nicknamed “the fab five” in the ’90s? marmorated sting bug. Yang S.Y., Wang D.Y., Chen G.M., Li H., Bian X.R. The occurrence and integrated control techniques of the yellow spotted sting bug and brown marmorated sting bug. Xu M.W., Jiang Y.C. Three stink bugs damaging Dangshan pear in ancient Yellow River areas. After hatching, first instar YSSB nymphs remain aggregated on the egg mass for 5–10 h .
It also feeds on woody ornamentals and wild plants such as black locust, Chinese plum, pine, paulownia, poplar, willow, and tree of heaven. Although YSSB has a wide range of host plants, it is not always a major pest depending on the region, host plant, and local population levels . The relative abundance of YSSB on different host plants might indicate that host plants vary in suitability and acceptability for YSSB. However, the development and fitness of YSSB on different host plants has rarely been studied. Nonreproductive adults overwinter in both artificial and natural shelters such as dry crevices of buildings, tree holes, underneath fallen leaves or the bark of trees .
The efficacy of some insecticides against YSSB was tested either in the laboratory or in the field. The mortality rate of YSSB nymphs reached 100% in 24 or 48 h after their exposure to some of the insecticides in the laboratory, e.g., malathion, omethoate, deltamethrin, fenpropathrin and lambda-cyhalothrin . Field cage tests on Chinese jujube showed that isocarbophos and omethoate provided nearly 100% and over 95% control of YSSB in 48 h after spraying, respectively . Zhang et al. reported that insect growth regulators such as chlorbenzuron and triflumuron applied in the field provided over 90% and 80% control of YSSB nymphs and adults, respectively. In a 100-ha pomegranate orchard, the damage rate to flower-buds and fruit from YSSB was reduced from 12–15% and 5–7% to 5–7% and 3–5%, respectively, after spraying fenvalerate, lambda-cyhalothrin, omethoate, dichlorvos, or methidathion .
Dr Zhang added, “Currently, famers rely heavily on spraying broad-spectrum insecticides to control the stink bugs in China, which would result in adverse effects on the environment, human health and beneficial insects. Zhang T.X., Jiang J.F., Chang R. The occurrence and control of major fruit pests on jujube trees. Shiozawa H. Transmission of Paulownia witches’ broom by stink bugs, Halyomorpha mista Uhler. According to YSSB’s aggregation behavior in overwintering sites in the fall, trapping with a bunch of straw attached to the base of the trunk or branch/vine can be deployed to aggregate overwintering adults and then kill them by burning or otherwise disposing of the straw . Song & Wang also recommended this trapping method for a Chinese jujube orchard with 2–3 trees per mu and 1–2 bunches of straws per tree depending on the population density of YSSB during the season.
For example, those varieties without fuzz in nectarine groups were heavily attacked by YSSB, whereas those varieties with fuzz in ornamental flowering peach groups were much less attacked . In addition, a field cage study on different Chinese jujube varieties showed that YSSB preferred to feed more on “Hui-zao” than on “Ji-xin-zao” or “Jiu-yue-qin,” and the mortality of YSSB nymphs or adults was much higher in the latter two resistant varieties . This conclusion might be biased, as YSSB can disperse between host plants and across the landscape and YSSB prefers to inhabit arboreal hosts, such as tree of heaven, during the daytime .
First and second instar nymphs exhibit aggregation behavior, but third instar nymphs disperse as individuals to seek food , however, there were also reports that second instars can disperse to seek food . YSSB adults respond to light and often rest on the top kiwifruit vines and young fruit in the sunlight during the day , and then move to the undersides of leaves or other warmer places to rest during the night . The research team will investigate biological control agents such as Anastatus fulloi and Beauveria bassiana for potential augmentative biological control options. Research towards development of pheromone-based lures and traps is also under way to support robust monitoring/surveillance and sustainable management of YSSB.