Several authors related measurements of soil water content, mainly using capacitance sensors , with plant-based indicators of grapevine water stress in order to obtain thresholds for efficient water management . In contrast, Intrigliolo and Castel , working on a Tempranillo vineyard in Requena , did not observe a clear relation between soil and plant-based measurements, which was likely due to the high spatial variability of soil water content. Predawn leaf water potential, in particular, is thought to estimate soil moisture better than the other methods because it is nearly not affected by environmental factors, representing a situation of stable equilibrium between soil and atmosphere.

The purpose of this research was to examine the knowledge sharing behavior by online learning community members in terms of their psychological safety and social presence perceptions. In addition, this research also identified the influence of PS to promote SP and the mediation impact of SP in the relationships between PS and KSB. Design/methodology/approach The data were gathered through self-administered questionnaire distributed to 133 online class members at a university in Indonesia where online learning has created a new learning experience. To represent key behavioral attributes, 12 items were used to represent PS, SP and KSB. The relationships among the variables were analyzed using the structural equation modelling method.

Self -awareness of one’s internal conflicts between thoughts, emotion and feeling, will reduce symptoms of acute distress, often having resulted in mood imbalances such as, depression/anxiety. Managing one’s individual emotional life, sorting out internal conflicts, unresolved or unattended, difficult emotions from the past can also begin to surface. Detaching and letting go of negative thoughts and emotions, will again guide you back the feelings as the loving couple and a partnership. Don’t engage with reps or accounts on something that isn’t helping the distributor deliver against the specific plans and goals they have agreed to. What happens during OND needs to be planned and agreed upon with management in advance. If you’re lucky enough to be spending time with distributors and accounts in OND, make sure that your interactions are in line with these plans.

These are just a few of the reasons why alumni are important to the success of higher ed institutions, which are becoming more accountable for job placement rates. The effects of applied water at various fractions of measured evapotranspiration on water relations… Plants will typically equilibrate with the wettest portion of the soil profile; thus, c pd readings tend to underestimate the maximum water deficit experienced by plants during the day.

We cored ash trees with an increment borer and measured width of annual growth rings to compare growth of trees with and without grape vines. We selected trees near the intersection of the W5 and W4 trails in the DePauw Nature Park. (cv. Thompson Seedless, clone 2A) was determined with a large weighing lysimeter in the San Joaquin Valley of California from 1994 to 1996.

At full canopy in 1996 the Kc leveled off at a value of 1.1 and remained such until the end of October. The results indicate that girdling the trunks of grapevines can affect water use when compared to non-girdled grapevines. Additionally, the Kc of this perennial horticultural crop does not decrease after harvest or later in the season if the vines are fully irrigated and insect pests are controlled. Vine balance is the central concept in the study of viticulture where vine physiology and vineyard production merge. This concept was introduced long ago and has been further defined by viticulture researchers around the world. Examples of vine balance are central to vineyard production and have arisen from research during the past century.

Irrigation started when plants reached a midday stem water potential (Ψs md ) threshold value of −0.6 MPa in order to avoid water stress situations , and was maintained until the first half of October. At each irrigation, we applied a volume of water equal to the water consumed (100% ETc), quantified with a weighing lysimeter, since the previous irrigation. The viticulturist-dictated balance of the vineyard is determined by the production goals, vineyard management methods, and economics of the business. Those production practices that do not adhere to a vine’s production capacity will inevitably result in unsustainable vineyard production practices, as there will be reduced vine health and reduction in yields and/or fruit quality. In vineyards where there is competition for water resources by poor vineyard floor management and/or improper irrigation and high yields, there can be problems such as reduced fruit quality , weak wood, poor bud fruitfulness, and poor bud break.

Moreover, power distance does not moderate the relationship between LLX and knowledge sharing. Originality/value The present study one of its kind explores the relationship between LLX, feedback-seeking behavior, knowledge sharing and power distance. Design/methodology/approach This essay has been prepared by a KM researcher who shares their own personal which of the following processes does not form part of external respiration? views and opinion regarding past and current societal developments and based on that offers a potentially new KM direction. Findings Switching the focus to rKM may help address current and upcoming social challenges that can only be addressed jointly by the global community and which would also involve a new consideration of the “knowledge” resource.

Practical implications The results implied the importance of PS and SP perception to promoting KSB in online learning environments. The results highlighted an important message to universities and schools to be more concerned on students’ feeling safe personally and students’ awareness of others’ presence to maximize knowledge sharing activities in online class environment. Originality/value This paper revealed the importance of PS and SP to promote KSB in the higher education online learning community. To the best of the researchers’ knowledge, this is the first study to link PS and SP to KSB and identify the importance of the mediation effect of SP on the relationship between PS and KSB specifically in higher education online learning environment. A comparative study on adaptive responses to water deficit was conducted on 8-year old vines of the cultivars Grenache, of Mediterranean origin, and Syrah of mesic origin, grown side by side in a commercial vineyard near Montpellier, France. Maximum stomatal conductance and maximum photosynthesis of Grenache were more sensitive to water deficit (expressed as pre-dawn leaf water potential, PD) than g max and Amax of Syrah.