A theory suggesting that the way in which we present ourselves is shaped by our life experiences, as well as by our interactions with others. Weber’s theory that bureaucracies would gain increasing power over modern life, eventually governing almost every aspect of society. Charles Horton Cooley’s theory of socialization, which posits that we form our self-images on the basis of what we perceive to be others’ views of us.

For example, Canadians for Tax Fairness estimates that wealthy Canadians have a combined total of $170 billion concealed in untaxed offshore tax havens . “Tax haven use has robbed at least $7.8 billion in tax revenues from Canada” . As many youth from poor backgrounds are exposed to the high value placed on material success in capitalist society but face insurmountable odds to achieving it, turning to illegal means to achieve success is a rational, if deviant, solution. These meanings are handled in, and modified through, an interpretative process used by the person in dealing with the things he or she encounters .

Evangelicalism A form of Protestantism that stresses the preaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the validity of personal conversion, the Bible as the basis for belief, and active preaching of the faith. Emotion work An individual’s effort to change an emotion or feeling to one that seems to be more appropriate to a given situation. Economic periphery The sector of the economy characterized by small, local, barely profitable firms; also called the competitive sector.

An early proponent of this view was Dutch criminologist Willem Bonger , who said that capitalism as an economic system involves competition for profit. This competition leads to an emphasis in a capitalist society’s culture on egoism, or self-seeking behavior, and greed. Because profit becomes so important, people in a capitalist society are more likely than those in noncapitalist ones to break the law for profit and other gains, even if their behavior hurts others. In some inner-city areas, they said, a subculture of violence promotes a violent response to insults and other problems, which people in middle-class areas would probably ignore.

Social psychology The scientific study of how individual behavior is socially influenced. Includes a growing respect for rationality, cultural and religious pluralism, tolerance of moral ambiguity, faith in education, and belief in civil rights, the rule of law, and due process. Role conflict A situation in which two or more social roles make incompatible demands on a person. Prestige A social recognition, respect, and deference accorded individuals or groups based on their social status.

Or a conflict theorist might be interested in the power and powerlessness experienced by local farmers versus large farming conglomerates, such as the documentary Food Inc. depicts as resulting from Monsanto’s patenting of seed technology. For example, although suicide is generally considered an individual phenomenon, Émile Durkheim was interested in studying the social factors that affect it. His studied social ties within a group, or social solidarity, and hypothesized that differences in suicide rates might be explained by religion-based differences. Durkheim gathered a large amount of data about Europeans who had ended their lives, and he did indeed find differences based on religion. Protestants were more likely to commit suicide than Catholics in Durkheim’s society, and his work supports the utility of theory in sociological research.

The institution responsible for making and enforcing the rules of society and for regulating relations with other societies. Robert Merton’s theory that examines how members of a society adapt their goals to the means that society provides of achieving them. A formal organization’s displacement which of the following statements about business value drivers is false? of one goal with another in order to continue to exist. A theoretical perspective formulated by Garfinkel that examines how people’s background assumptions help them make sense of everyday situations. Goffman’s theory that life is like a never-ending play in which people are actors.

The culture held by the majority and/or by the most powerful group in a society. The attitude that in order to understand the traits of another culture, one must view them within the context of that culture. The theft of property or certain forms of damage against the property of another person.