Taylor, Chatters, and Levin research indicated that religion could serve as a protective or preventive factor against the recurrence of mental illness and as a moderating factor to ease the influence of life stress. Language sometimes differs among ethnosystems, interfering with client access to social and health services . The literature historically treated language as a problem rather than seeing it as an expression of the client’s culture (O’Hagan 2001). Practitioners tended to place the problem on the client for not communicating in a language that the provider could understand.

Case Study 8.2 Lisa Balinski, Trying to Balance It All at 50 Lisa Balinski grew up in a lower-middle-class neighborhood in a midsize city in Minnesota. Her parents were both brought to the United States from Poland as small children, during World War II. They grew up in a neighborhood where social life revolved around the Polish-speaking Catholic church, where they met and married. Lisa was an only child, and her parents worked hard in the small Polish restaurant they opened soon after marrying. She started helping out in the restaurant at an early age, with increasing responsibilities over time. Her parents were proud when she graduated from college and got a job teaching at the neighborhood high school.

They suggest that the beginning of midlife is very different from the latter part of midlife and that lumping these parts of the life course together may lead to contradictory findings. They call for a division of middle adulthood into early midlife and late midlife (Kohli & Künemund, 2005; Lachman, 2004). You may recall a similar concern about the boundaries of young adulthood noted in Chapter 7. Late adulthood, which is divided into late adulthood and very late adulthood in this book, encompasses an even larger age span, potentially from 65 to 100-plus. As longevity increases, the adult portion of life is likely to be divided into finer and finer phases.

Psychological Changes in Late Adulthood Without good longitudinal research, it has been difficult to understand psychological changes in late adulthood. Because cross-sectional research cannot control for cohort effects, we need to exercise great caution in interpreting findings of age differences in cross-sectional research. Three areas that have received a lot of attention are changes in personality, changes in intellectual functioning, and mental health and mental disorders in late adulthood. The Berlin Aging Study, one of the largest studies of older adults, included numerous measures of psychological aging. Findings suggest that one should not think about a uniform process of psychological aging (Baltes & Mayer, 1999).

Such social networking technology offers young adults the opportunity to create personal identity profiles that can be shared and responded to in a public forum. College, but there could have been no such support if Sheila Henderson had desired to go to college after high school. Especially in young adulthood, life structures are in constant motion, changing with time and evolving as new life circumstances unfold.

The study of identity intersectionality focuses less on hierarchical group memberships and more on the ways in which various aspects of identity fuse together to create an individual’s unique lens. They note that among children, although understanding of gender appears to emerge first, we understand relatively little about the timing of identity intersectionality. In addition, new research on gender calls into question long-held beliefs about children and identity development. Developmentalists have widely agreed that gender constancy is a necessary prerequisite for understanding social group identification. However, research with transgender children suggests that some transgender children experience gender fluidity and others experience gender constancy, albeit not with the gender assigned at birth. As children experience sexual attraction, emerging sexuality contributes additional complexity to identity development.

This is a convenient system, but note that these divisions are not supported by clearly demarcated events. In addition to each of the big five personality traits, our tendency to sensation-seeking plays a significant role in how willing we are to take risks to experience varied, novel, buying a new house can increase one’s stress level. complex, and intense sensations and experiences . The trait–environment correlation studies show that if we exhibit characteristics at one end of a personality dimension we will seek out, create, or modify situations differently than do individuals at the other end of the spectrum.