The magnetic field produced by a long straight conductor is perpendicular to a parallel conductor, as indicated by RHR-2. A view from above of the two wires shown in , with one magnetic field line shown for each wire. RHR-1 shows that the force between the parallel conductors is attractive when the currents are in the same direction. A similar analysis shows that the force is repulsive between currents in opposite directions.

It is named after Jean-Baptiste Biot and Félix Savart, who discovered this relationship in 1820. The above illustration shows three different current segments , and in a uniform magnetic field. The magnitude of the current in each segment is the same. If , , and are the magnitudes of the magnetic forces on each segment, rank these forces from largest to smallest. A circular current loop of radius R carrying a current I is placed in the xy-plane.

The majority carriers enter the base region in large numbers. As the base is thin and lightly doped, the majority carriers swamp the small number of electrons there and as the collector is reverse biased, these holes can easily cross the junction and enter the collector. We show that such phenomena are realized in the presence of both the coherent Andreev tunneling between the CNT and superconducting leads, and an incoherent single electron tunneling between the voltage biased STM tip and CNT. It is found numerically that the emergence of the self-sustained oscillations leads to a substantial suppression of DC electric current.

Draw the circuit diagram for studying the input and output characteristics of n-p-n transistor in common emitter configuration. Using the circuit, explain how input, output characteristics are obtained. The most practical path is to expand their ecosystem activities and improve their ability to innovate.

The remaining 95% of the electrons enter the collector region under the reverse bias and constitute collector current IC. Briefly explain how the typical V-I characteristics of a diode are obtained and draw these characteristics. Explain with the help of a diagram, how a depletion layer and barrier potential are formed in a junction diode. Explain briefly, with the help of a circuit diagram, how a p-n junction diode works as a half wave rectifier.

Welcome to the tenth edition of McKinsey’s Global Banking Annual Review, which provides a range of possible answers to that question for the global banking industry—some of which are perhaps surprisingly hopeful. Unlike many past shocks, the COVID-19 crisis is not a banking crisis; it is a crisis of the real economy. Banks will surely be affected, as credit losses cascade through the economy and as demand for banking services drops. Global banking entered the crisis well capitalized and is far more resilient than it was 12 years ago. Future-proof business models are less dependent on financial intermediation and more focused on value-added services that generate greater customer involvement and sustainable fees. Businesses like payments or wealth management have a natural advantage, because they gather fees without involving the balance sheet.

With an average C/A ratio that is 70 bps higher than peers in more challenged markets , followers have the potential to improve productivity significantly. For the portion of the cost base that cannot be outsourced to third parties, implementing ZBB is a highly effective way to transform the bank’s approach to costs. Within resilients are banks that are less challenged by the macro conditions and more by the declining economics of their own underlying business models.

The magnetic force on current-carrying conductors is given by where I is the current and l is the length of a wire in a uniform magnetic field B. This is the force on a straight, current-carrying wire in a uniform magnetic field. Theoretical proposals indicate that the ultrastrong list the functions of proteins in the text area below coupling could be reached in SQUIDs with a mechanical compliant segment , single atoms in a cavity or Cooper pair boxes . A supercurrent transistor is a superconductor-semiconductor hybrid device in which the Josephson supercurrent is switched on and off using a gate voltage.

The angle θ is 90 degrees, which means Also, the length can be divided over to the left-hand side to find the force per unit length. For part b, the current times length is written in unit vector notation, as well as the magnetic field. After the cross product is taken, the directionality is evident by the resulting unit vector. The magnetic field produced by a long straight conductor is perpendicular to a parallel conductor, as indicated by right-hand rule -2. A view from above of the two wires shown in , with one magnetic field line shown for wire 1.