The macroscopic climate often influences each of the above. Pressure and sound waves may also be considered in the context of marine or sub-terrestrial environments. Any ecosystem, no matter how larger or small, contains both biotic and abiotic factors. For example, a houseplant growing on a windowsill may be considered to be a small ecosystem.

Together, biotic and abiotic factors make up an ecosystem. In turn, biotic factors can limit the kinds and amounts of biotic factors in an ecosystem. Wind can be an important abiotic factor because it influences the rate of evaporation and transpiration. The physical force of wind is also important because it can move soil, water, or other abiotic factors, as well as an ecosystem’s organisms. Biogeography is the study of the geographic distribution of living things and the abiotic factors that affect their distribution. Abiotic factors such as temperature and rainfall vary based mainly on latitude and elevation.

In fact, about 95% of all living things on Earth are heterotrophs. Unlike autotrophs, heterotrophs don’t have to fix carbon, so they can take advantage of all the energy from the food they eat. Q1) List any four abiotic factors which affect different living beings. Inorganic nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, are important in the distribution and the abundance of living things.

For instance, without an adequate amount of sunlight, autotrophic organisms may not be able to survive. When these organisms eventually die, it will create a shortage of food for primary consumers. This effect cascades up the food chain, affecting every organism. Use this activity tclerror: no display name and no $display environment variable to distinguish between abiotic and biotic factors using the takahē as an example. The food chain begins with producers, living things that take minerals and gasses from the environment for support. Herbivores are plant-eating animals, while carnivores eat other animals.

Example of abiotic factors are sunlight, soil, temperature, climate, and water. Abiotic examples typically depend on the type of ecosystem. For instance, abiotic components in a terrestrial ecosystem include air, weather, water, temperature, humidity, altitude, the pH level of soil, type of soil and more. Abiotic examples in an aquatic ecosystem include water salinity, oxygen levels, pH levels, water flow rate, water depth and temperature.

These lifeforms rely on abiotic factors as they directly affect their growth, survival and reproduction. For instance, turbidity is an abiotic factor that majorly affects the aquatic ecosystem. High levels of turbidity inhibit the growth of submerged plants. This consequently affects other species which depend upon these plants for food or shelter. Water, sun, radiation, temperature , humidity, climate, acidity, and soil can contain abiotic factors. Each of the above is influenced also by the macroscopic atmosphere.

Wind speed could determine how fruits and seeds are dispersed.. And pH of soil would determine whether recycling of nutrients can occur. Abiotic factors would either help a plant or animal survive or hinder it. Abiotic factors allies are on surrounding conditions such as surface roughness, topography, hydrophobicity, pH, salinity, temperature, and presence of oxygen (Nauendorf et al., 2016). Interspecific relationships are a biotic factor that describe the interactions between organisms within their environment. These interactions may have negative, positive or neutral effects on either species’ ability to survive and reproduce.