Supination is the movement of the radius and ulna bones of the forearm so that the palm faces forward. Pronation is the opposite movement, in which the palm faces backward. Opposition is the movement of the thumb toward the fingers of the same hand, making it possible to grasp and hold objects. Direct support for a synovial joint is provided by ligaments that strongly unite the bones of the joint and serve to resist excessive or abnormal movements.

The foramina of all the vertebrae line up to form the vertebral canal, which encloses the spinal cord. Cervical spondylosis – decrease in the size of the intervertebral foramina, usually due to degeneration of the joints of the spine. In combination with the vertebral body, the vertebral arch forms an enclosed hole – the vertebral foramen. It is theweight-bearingcomponent, and vertebrae in the lower portion of the column have larger bodies than those in the upper portion . The vertebral columnis a series of approximately 33 bones called vertebrae, which are separated by intervertebral discs.

Vertebral bodies indirectly articulate with each other via the intervertebral discs. Fig 7 – Diagram of the sacrum and coccyx, articulating with the pelvic bones. Thecoccyxis a small bone which articulates with the apex of the sacrum. Due to the lack of vertebral arches, there is no vertebral canal.

Different types of joints allow different types of movement. Planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, and ball-and-socket are all types of synovial joints. Angular movements are produced when the angle between the bones of a joint changes. There are several different types of angular movements, including flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction. Flexion, or bending, occurs when the angle between the bones decreases. Moving the forearm upward at the elbow or moving the wrist to move the hand toward the forearm are examples of flexion.Extension is the opposite of flexion in that the angle between the bones of a joint increases.

Protraction and retraction can be seen in the movement of the mandible as the jaw is thrust outwards and then back inwards. Elevation is the movement of a bone upward, such as when the shoulders are shrugged, lifting the scapulae. Depression is the opposite of elevation—movement downward of a bone, such mi amore meaning as after the shoulders are shrugged and the scapulae return to their normal position from an elevated position.Dorsiflexion is a bending at the ankle such that the toes are lifted toward the knee. Plantar flexion is a bending at the ankle when the heel is lifted, such as when standing on the toes.

9A and 9B represent the two ear members of the pivot assembly of FIG. On the left, the ear or flat of the motor body nose is shown (FIG. 9A), and on the right, the ear or flat of the pivot yoke (FIG. 9B). A mechanism is described which permits the manufacturer to form sturdy multiple detent stops (clockwise-counterclockwise) for precision placement of the bendable head at a selected angle. The mechanism is explained in the detailed description to follow.

The front 110 and rear 112 portions are joined together by at least one, and preferably several adjustment mechanisms 114 which extend between the two portions. The adjustment mechanisms can take any of numerous configurations, only one of which is described here. By way of example and not of limitation, the mechanisms can include a threaded insert 116 attached to one of the two portions 112, 114, and a threaded shaft 118 with a drive head 120 which mates with the insert 116. With the drive head 120 captured by the other of the two portions 112, 114 (e.g., in a hold or recess), rotation of the drive head, and therefore of the shaft 118, pulls the front portion 110 towards the rear portion 112 , and thus tightens the cuff on the patient’s leg.

The plates 122, 124 fit into correspondingly configured openings in the cuff so that the plates capture the cuff front, rear, and side portions and force them against the patient’s lower leg. While only front and right side plates are illustrated, rear and left side plates are also optionally provided, and optionally for all implanted bolts. 1 illustrates a first exemplary embodiment of an ankle treatment device 10 which embodies principles of the present invention. The device 10 includes an upper cuff 12 and a lower shoe 14, which are connected together by one or more rotatable joints 16 on at least one of the sides of the device. The view is of the motor body nose 62 looking down at the outside surface of the flat of nose ear 69. A second such ear, oppositely facing, rests behind this plane.